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Indicators of active population ageing
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Indicators of active population ageing

Last update: 26.04.2017

Methodological notes

Population and attributes of age

According to the classification of the World Health Organisation (WHO), the following groups can be distinguished, by calendar age:

  • 5 - 59 years old - middle age,
  • 60 - 74 years old - early old age, higher age or young-old age, pre-senium,
  • 75 - 89 years old - oldest old age, senior age, senium,
  • 90 years and over - longevity.

Average age of population is weighted arithmetic mean of the number of the years lived by members of a given population till a specified point in time.

Median age of population – the age that divides the population into two equal-sized parts (a half with a younger age and a half with an older age than the median).

Ageing index - the number of persons aged 65 years and over per 100 persons aged 0 to 14 years.

Economic dependency ratio - the number of persons aged 0 to 14 years and persons aged 65 years and over per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years.

Old age dependency ratio - the number of persons in the post-productive age (aged 65 years and over) per 100 persons in the productive age (aged 15 to 64 years).

Life expectancy at a specific age is the mean number of additional years a person of that age could live if current mortality rates were to continue.

Participation of seniors in the labour market

Economically active population (labour force) - persons aged 15 and over that are employed or unemployed.

Employed persons are defined as all persons aged 15 and over who during the reference week:

  • worked at least one hour of work for pay or profit (full-time or part-time job, permanent, temporary, casual or seasonal job) including employed persons working abroad up to 1 year and cross-border commuters, persons working under agreements on work performed outside employment relationship and persons who performed activation works,
  • had a job but did not work due to illness, holiday, maternity leave, training, bad weather conditions, strike and lock-out except for persons on long-term unpaid leave from work and persons taking parental leave,
  • the employed persons also include unpaid contributing family workers.

Employees - persons who work for a public or private employer and who receive compensation in the form of wage, salary or another remuneration, including members of productive cooperatives.

Self-employment jobs - self-employed with employees (employers), self-employed without employees (own-account workers) and contributing (unpaid) family workers.

Unemployed - all persons aged 15 - 74 who were:

  1. not working for pay or profit during the reference week,
  2. actively seeking work during the last four weeks or who found a job to start within a period of at most 3 months,
  3. able to start work in the next two weeks following the reference week.

The following are considered as active search methods: contact with the public employment office or with a private agency to find work, asking among friends or relatives, using the job advertisements, applying to employers directly, taking a recruitment test or examination or being interviewed, looking for land, premises or equipment, applying for permits, licenses of financial resources. The Eurostat definition of unemployment is harmonised under Commission Regulation (EC) No 1897/2000.

Duration of unemployment - is defined as the shorter of the following two periods: the duration of search for work, or the lenght of time since the last employment.

Economically inactive population (persons out of labour market) aged 15 and over - all persons aged 15 years and over who are not classified as economically active. They are defined as persons who were not working for pay or profit during the reference week and were not actively seeking work during the last four weeks or who were actively seeking work during the last four weeks but were not able to start work in the next two weeks following the reference week (students, apprentices, pensioners, persons keeping household, persons on parental leave, persons in re-training course, discouraged workers).

Economically inactive population in total - economically inactive population aged 15 and over and children aged up to 15 years.

Economic activity rate (Participation rate) - economically active persons as a percentage of the population aged 15 and over.

Economic activity rate by age - the percentage of persons aged 15 and over in certain age group who are economically active.

Employment rate - persons in employment as a percentage of the population aged 15 and over.

Employment rate by age - the percentage of the population in certain age group who are employed.

Unemployment rate - unemployed persons as a percentage of the economically active population.

Unemployment rate by age (specific unemployment rate) - the percentage of economically active persons in certain age group who are unemployed.

The source of data on participation of seniors in the labour market are the results of the Labour Force Sample Survey realized by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic.

Living conditions

Net money income of households is income after deducting income tax and compulsory contributions to the Social Insurance Agency and health insurance companies of gross money income.

Net money expenditure of households includes consumer expenditure and other net expenditure, i.e. other expenditure without income tax and compulsory personal insurance.

Nominal growth index represents a change of indicator measuring the actual (current) prices in the time.

Real growth index represents the change in the indicator measured in current prices in the year to which they are compared. This is a share of the nominal growth index and the consumer price index, therefore index, which shows the change in consumer prices in the time.

At-risk-of-poverty threshold is the value of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold (60 % median national equivalised income.

At-risk-of-poverty rate is share of persons in the total population with an equivalised disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold (60% of the national median equivalised disposable income).

At-risk-of-poverty rate before social transfers except old-age and survivors´ benefits – indicator is based on definition of income, which includes pensions (i.e. old-age and survivors´ benefits), but excludes other social transfers.

At-risk-of-poverty rate before all social transfers (including old-age and survivors´ benefits) – indicator is based on definition of income, which excludes all social transfers, i.e. not take into account neither pensions (old-age and survivors´ benefits).

Social transfers are family benefits and allowances for families, housing allowances, unemployment benefits, old age benefits, survivors' benefits, sickness benefits, disability benefits, education allowances, benefit and allowances in the context of social exclusion.

The data source of the risk of poverty rate is the survey EU SILC carried out by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic.

Pension solo - the figures do not include concurrence with another pension benefits.

Old-age pension is the fundamental benefit of pension insurance. Insured person has entitlement for old-age pension, if was insured at least 15 years and reached pension age.

Insured person has entitlement for early old-age pension, when was insured at least 15 years, needs maximum two years to the reaching of age of old pension and the sum of early pension by the day by which pension awarded is higher than 1,2 times the subsistence level sum for one full-aged natural person.

Invalidity pension is allocated for insured person, who became disabled and obtained necessary number of pension insurance years and on the invalidity formation day didn’t realized conditions of demand for old-age pension and was not him award early pension.

Widow’s pension is allocated as the partial replacement of deceased husband’s income.

Widower’s pension is allocated as the partial replacement of deceased wife’s income.

The data source of retirement security is the Social Insurance Agency.

Institutional care is provided in social service facilities according to the Act No. 448/2008 Code of Acts on Social Services as amended and on change and amendment of the Act. No. 455/1991 Code of Acts and Act No. 305/2005 Code of Acts on Social and Legal Child Protection and Social Guardianship. According to the Act No 416/2001 Coll. on the Transfer of some competencies from the state-administration bodies to the municipalities and higher territorial units, most of facilities were transferred to the field of activity of self-governing regions and municipalities.

Seniors facility provide social service to natural persons who have reached retirement age and are dependent on the assistance of another individual in particular activities and natural persons who have reached retirement age and they in retirement age dependent on aid of another person in individual activities and natural persons in retirement age and need social service in a facility for any other serious reasons.

Social service house for adults can provide the care to a person after finishing compulsory education, after finishing education under special conditions, after finishing further training and other adult persons with health disability from 25 years of age. They can provide the care to a person with physical disability, mental and behavioural disorders, sensory disability or the combination of disabilities.

Health and factors influencing the population health status

International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - since 1994, the deceased persons´ causes of deaths are recorded by the International Classification of Diseases and related health problems, according to the 10th revision.

European Health Interview Survey – EHIS is a sample survey on the population´s health which was conducted in the Slovak Republic on the basis of harmonised methodology produced by Eurostat. The Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic carried out this survey within the framework of the European project of public health statistics. This survey has been conducted in the Member States of the European Community in five-year intervals. 
The target population for EHIS was made up of natural persons residing for a substantial part of the year in the territory of the SR in private households and were aged 15 years and over at the time of the survey. The survey was based on subjective answers of respondents and on subjective evaluations. Respondents answered the questions on their own free will, and not being affected by any external influence.

The healthy life years divide the life expectancy into life period spent at various states of health, from say good to bad health. In this way they add a dimension of quality to the quantity of life lived. Given the significant differences in morbidity, life expectancy at say good, average or bad health at a given age is calculated differently for both sexes. The healthy life years indicator measures the number of remaining years that an individual is still supposed to live without disability, combining information on mortality and morbidity.

Data source for the healthy life years is the EU-SILC sample survey.

Education and the use of information and communication technologies

The data source for the highest education attained, are the data from the Population and Housing Censuses conducted in 1991, 2001 and 2011. Data on the highest attained tertiary, master, engineer and doctoral education in 1991, contain evaluation on all levels of higher education (the Bachelor and Doctoral degree programmes included).

Survey on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in households is focused on the equipment level of households by information and communication technologies and the level of knowledge and skills of the population. The category of personal computers encompasses also personal computers including laptops and notebooks.

Internet is a world wide web operating on the basis of transmission protocols TCP/IP, ensuring communication between public and private networks at different types of communication media.

E-mail is defined as an electronic transmission of messages including texts and attachments from one computer to another, located inside or outside of an institution (household).

Eurostat databases are data sources for computer and Internet use by selected age groups.

Participation rate in education and further professional training involves participation on formal and non-formal education and professional training. The reference periods for evaluation of participation rate in education and professional training are four weeks before the discussion is held. Indicators for various age groups are presented and calculated as annual averages of quarterly data from the Labour Force Sample Survey (LFSS). The denominator consists of the total population of the same age group, excluding no answers to the question on the participation in education and professional training.

Eurostat databases are data sources for participation in further education and professional training by selected age groups.

Study at University of Third Age (UTA) is organized pursuant to the Act No 131/2002 Coll. on universities and on amendment of certain acts as amended and in compliance with Act No. 568/2009 Coll. on lifelong learning and on amendments to certain laws. Its aim is to develop and spread scholarship at all stages of life.

The Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information of the SR is the data source for the number of graduates studying at the universities of third age.


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