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Indicator of gender equality

Indicator of gender equality

20.01.2016 | | Number of views: 14324

 

Demography

Mid-year population is the arithmetic mean of the initial (1 Jan.) and final (31 Dec.) stocks of the population in the reference year.  Until 2010,  the mid-year population was processed by means of the demographic balancing method as of 1 July of the reference year.

A live-born child is a child showing at least one of the following signs of life at birth such as breathing, beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, active movement of muscles though the umbilical cord has not been cut or the placenta has not been born. At the same time, the birth weight is

  • a) 500 and more grams or
  • b) 499 grams and less if a child survives 24 hours after its birth.

Abortion is premature spontaneous or artificially induced termination of pregnancy including extra-uterine pregnancy abortion where the fetus does not show signs of life and its birth weight is bellow 1 000 grams, or the fetus shows some sign of life and its birth weight is bellow 500 grams but it does not survive 24 hours, or if the weight of the fetus cannot be established and duration of gestation is bellow 28 weeks. Induced abortion is artificially induced termination of pregnancy including extra-uterine pregnancy. Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) is spontaneous termination of pregnancy, i. e. an abortion due to biological causes, without an obvious external intervention.

Marriage is a legal act to contract marriage. It is an union of man and woman created on the basis of their voluntary and free decision to contract marriage (section 1 of the Act on the National Council of the SR No 36/2005 Coll. on Family as amended and supplemented by further acts).

Divorce is a legal form for termination of marriage of living spouses (section 23 of the Act on family).

Natural increase (decrease) of population is the difference between the number of live-born children and deaths. Net migration is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. Total increase (decrease) it is the sum of natural increase and net migration.

Basic age groups are divided by the European standard. Population in pre-productive age consists of inhabitants aged 0 - 14, in productive age aged 15 - 64 and the post-productive age include persons aged 65 and more. Women aged 15 - 49 belong to the so-called  "fertile age" group.

Ageing index is represented by the number of persons aged 65 years and over per 100 persons aged 0 to 14 years.
Mean age is the weighted arithmetic mean of the number of years lived by members of a given population till a given point of time;  it is a mean age of the living population.

Gender  is a biological feature of all individuals whether men or women.

Total fertility rate is the mean number of live-born children per one woman throughout her childbearing years (between the ages of 15 and 49) if the fertility rate level in the reference year was kept on and the mortality rate level showed the value of zero.

Gross reproduction rate is the mean number of live-born girls that would be delivered by one woman throughout her childbearing years (between the ages of 15 and 49) if the fertility rate level in the reference year was kept on and the mortality rate level showed the value of zero.

Net reproduction rate is the mean number of live-born girls that would be delivered by one woman throughout her childbearing years (between the ages of 15 and 49) if the levels of fertility and mortality rates in the reference year were kept on.

Life expectancy at a specific age (expectation of life) is the mean number of additional years a person of that age could live if current mortality rates were to continue.

Life expectancy at birth is the mean number of additional years a newborn could live if current mortality rates were to continue.

Source:
All published data for demographic statistics are the result of the data collection and processing in the SO SR, except primary data relating abortions, which are obtained from the sector surveying of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic realized by the National Health Information Centre in Bratislava and processed by the SO SR.

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Labour market

Economically active population (labor force) by labour force sample survey (LFS) are persons aged 15 and over that are employed or unemployed.

Economically inactive population (persons out of labour market) aged 15 and over by LFS are all persons aged 15 years and over who are not classified as economically active, were not working for pay or profit during the reference week and were not actively seeking work during the last four weeks or who were actively seeking work during the last four weeks but were not able to start work in the next two weeks following the reference week (students, apprentices, pensioners, persons keeping household, persons in re- training course, persons on parental leave, discouraged workers).

Economic activity rate by LFS (in per cent) is number of economic active population per 100 inhabitants aged 15 and over years.

Employed by LFS are all those aged 15 and over who worked at least one hour for pay or profit (full-time or part- time job, permanent, temporary, casual or seasonal job) in the reference week, as well as contributing (unpaid) family workers, professionals in military service and employed persons working outside the Slovak republic (except persons working outside the SR more than 1 year without interruption). Data on employed include persons not working in the reference week due to illness, holiday, maternity leave, study, weather conditions and strike or dispute, except persons on long-term unpaid leave  from work. Persons on additional maternity leave (parental leave) are not included among employed.

Employees by LFS are persons who work for a public or private employer and who receive compensation in the form of wage, salary or another remuneration,  including members of productive co-operatives.

Self-employed by LFS are entrepreneurs with employees (employers), entrepreneurs without employees (own-account workers) and contributing (unpaid) family workers.

Employment rate by LFS is persons in employment as a percentage of the population aged 15 and over.

Employment rate by age (in per cent) by LFS is the percentage of the population in certain age group who are employed.

Unemployed by LFS are all persons aged 15-74 who were not working for pay or profit during the reference week, who were actively seeking work during the last four weeks (or who found a job to start within a period of at most 3 months) and who were able to start work in the next two weeks following the reference week. Those persons can, but need not be registered at labour offices, social affairs and family as job applicants.

Unemployment rate by LFS (in per cent) is number of unemployed persons by LFS per 100 economically active population by LFS (excludes persons on parental leave).

Duration of unemployment by LFS is defined as the shorter of the following two periods: the duration of work searching or duration since the last employment termination.

A job vacancy is defined as a paid post (newly created, unoccupied or to become vacant) for which the employer is taking active steps to find a suitable candidate from outside the enterprise and is prepared to take more steps to fill it. An occupied post that become vacant due to long-term absence – maternity or parental leave or long-term sickness (more than 4 weeks) is included into job vacancy.

Average gross nominal monthly wage (enterprise reporting) includes the amount of wage expenditures, paid by own employee as compensation for work or its recompense on the base of legal relationship (work, service, public servant or membership relation) to employer. It is gross wage, non-lowered by legal or with employee agreed discount (data is calculated on natural persons and without entrepreneurial incomes).

Average gross nominal monthly earnings (sample survey) consists of basic (tariff) wage set by wage rules including basic components of contracted payments for working overtime, payments for hours not worked, bonuses paid according to the performance and evaluation criteria, extra payments for working overtime, the night work, work during Saturdays and Sundays, holidays, for environment damaging health, noise, risky and hard work, in-kind wages expressed in financial terms and other wage in the form of wage advantages whose level and periodicity are set in advance regardless of the situation in an enterprise.

Source:
All published data is the result of the processing of the SO SR, except data relating job applicants. These data are supplied by the Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family. Structure of Earnings Survey and LCS and data collection and processing is carried out by the processing organization TREXIMA, Ltd. under the supervision of SO of the SR.

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Social statistics and health

Old-age pension is the fundamental benefit of pension insurance. Insured person has entitlement for old-age pension, when was insured at least 15 years and reached pension age. Insured person has entitlement  for early old-age pension, when was insured at least 15 years, needs maximum two years to the reaching of age of old pension and the sum of early old-age pension by the day by which pension awarded is higher than 1,2 times the subsistence level sum for one full-aged natural person.

Invalidity pension is allocated for insured person, who became disabled and obtained necessary number of pension insurance years and on the invalidity formation day didn’t realized conditions of demand for old-age pension and was not him award early old-age pension.

Orphan’s pension is allocated to the dependent children due to death of a parent or adoptive parent. Full orphan pension is allocated to children whose parents (or adoptive parents) both died. These pensions do not depend on employment duration.

Widow’s pension is allocated as the partial replacement of deceased husband’s income.

Widower’s pension is allocated as the partial replacement of deceased wife’s income if some of next conditions is met: he caring for at least one dependent child, or he is an invalid with an incapacity for work of more than 70 %, or he raised at least three children (only 2 children if 52 years or older), or he reached retirement age.

Wife’s pension is the pension security benefit refunded by government available to married women who are fully disabled or have reached 65 years of age but who do not qualify for benefits based on their own pension schemes and earn no income.

Social pension is allocated to persons without subsistence who does not qualify for pension.

Average number of persons covered by sickness insurance comprises the insured employees, members of manufacturing and farming cooperatives, self-employed persons – artists and others (scientific workers, journalists and the like). Persons on maternity and parental leave, persons on compulsory military service and prisoners placed in penitentiary institutions are not included in the average number of persons covered by sickness insurance.

Average percentage of disability to work per year is calculated as a ratio of calendar days of disability to work due to illness and injury and average numbers of persons covered by sickness insurance, multiplied by the number of calendar days of the year.

At-risk-of-poverty rate after social transfer is share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below 60 % of the national equivalised median income. Equivalised disposable income is defined as the total disposable income of household divided by the equivalent number of household members.

Median of equivalised disposable income is the value of the equivalised disposable income, which divides the population according to income amount into two equally numerous parts according to number of persons.

Source:
Data on disability to work due to disease and injury are gained from administrative data sources of the National Labour Inspectorate, Social Insurance Agency and Public Health Authority of the SR. There are also used the administrative sources of Regional Office of Public Health Banská Bystrica (infectious diseases), Social Insurance Agency and Ministry of Health of the SR. Data on At- risk-of-poverty rate and self-assessment of health status of persons are obtained from the statistical surveys EU SILC carried out by the Statistical Office of the SR. Sources of data on causes of death are the SO of the SR.

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Education

According to the Act of the National Council of the SR No 245/2008 Code of Acts on education and training (Act on Education) these types of schools belong to the school system by § 27:

  • Kindergarten,
  • Basic school,
  • Grammar school,
  • Specialized secondary school,
  • Conservatory,
  • Schools for children and pupils with special pedagogical and educational needs (Special schools),
  • Basic school of arts,
  • Language school.

Educational facilities are also the part of the educational system.
According to § 32 the secondary schools are:

  • Grammar school,
  • Specialized secondary school (vocational secondary schools and associated secondary schools are counted),
  • Conservatory.

Specialized secondary school is internally differential secondary school, where pupils are educated at least two- and at most five year educational program of respective branch of education. Educational programs of specialized secondary school are mainly specialized for professional activities of economy, health system, public administration, culture, arts and other professional branches and also they can prepare pupils for next study. Specialized secondary schools providing education intended for professional activities are divided on types. Specialized education and preparation on specialized secondary school improve knowledge, skills and ability of a pupil gained in the former education and provide knowledge, skills and ability necessary in pursuance of professional activities. Data concerning secondary schools do not cover the schools of the Ministry of Defence of the SR and the Ministry of Interior of the SR.

The school years presented in the tables are indicated by the years in which started, e. g. the year 2014 refers to the school year 2014/2015.

Teachers for statutable working time (full-time), including headmasters and deputy headmasters are included in the number of teachers.

As well as higher education institutions (Act No 131/2002 Code of Acts amended and supplemented) are included in this system. Higher education institutions are top educational, scientific and artistic institutions. The major task of higher education in fulfilment of their mission is the provision of higher education and creative scientific research or creative artistic activity. Higher education institutions are public, state or private higher education institutions.

Source:
Source of data are the sector statistical surveys carried out by Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport  of the SR (Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information).

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Science and technology

Research and development (R&D) activities include basic research, applied research and experimental development.

R&D personnel includes persons employed directly in the field of research and development as well as persons providing direct services to research and development. Pedagogical staff at universities and colleges who within the framework of their work to a certain extent participate in research and development are also included.

Category of researchers comprises employees with decisive importance for production and social use of scientific knowledge.

Technicians and equivalent personnel include employees participating in research projects by performing scientific and technical tasks usually under the supervision of researchers.

Supporting staff includes qualified and non-qualified workers, secretaries and other employees participating in the work on R&D projects. Also other managers and administrative employees dealing with personal and financial matters whose activities are qualified as a direct service supporting research are included.
The survey on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in households is focused on the level of ICT equipment in households and the level of knowledge and skills of the population. The sample consisted of 4 500 randomly selected households at the territory of the SR.

Household includes persons who declare they live and manage together.

Online means to be in direct contact (e.g. the Internet), ready to receive/send data.

Category of personal computer includes desktop computers, tower PCs and portable computers (laptops).

Internet relates to Internet Protocol based networks: www, Extranet over the Internet, EDI over the Internet, Internet- enabled mobile phones.

E-mail is electronic transmission of messages including text and attachments from one computer to another located within the organization or outside.

Source:
All data is from the results of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic processing.

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Criminality and violence, justice

Criminal offence is a wrongful act with characteristics defined in the Penal Code.

Murder is a criminal offence in which the perpetrator intentionally kills another person.

Robbery is a criminal offence of taking or attempting to take something owned by another person with violence or threat of immediate-violence.

Battery is a criminal offence which occurs when the perpetrator intentionally causes bodily harm to other person and, as a result, the harmed person is disabled to work or his harm requires healing time of at least 7 calendar days.

Rape is a criminal offence which occurs when the perpetrator, by using violence or threat of imminent violence, forces a (female) victim to have sexual intercourse with him, or takes advantage of the victim’s helplessness for such act.

Violent crimes include criminal offences such as murder, robbery, battery, making threats, kidnapping, maltreatment etc. Moral crimes are offences such rape, sexual abuse, child pornography and procuring.

Other crimes are for example production of illicit drugs, riot, obstruction of official decisions etc.

Economic criminality is a specific kind of criminality, which causes economic damage to the country, to legal and natural persons. Crimes such as embezzlement, fraud, credit card fraud, consumer fraud, and bribery, but also pollution of environment and poaching fall between economic crimes.

Remaining crimes include for example avoidance of alimony payments, medical malpractice, traffic accidents, cruelty to animals etc.

Criminal offenders are persons who were prosecuted and investigated by police. Statistical data on criminal offenders is the aggregated information on perpetrators, which the police managed to detect and recorded during the investigation.

Defendant is a person against whom a legal action was brought by the prosecutor.

Convict is a person on whom a sentence was passed that came into force.

Sentence without suspension is sentence to imprisonment in penitentiary institutions administered by the Ministry of Justice of  the SR.

Suspended sentence is sentence to imprisonment that is suspended for a specific period of probation, which may last up to 5 years. Imprisonment may be suspended only if the sentence does not exceed 2 years.

Habitual offender is a person who has repeatedly committed the same criminal offence. From the justice statistics point of view habitual offender is a person on whom a sentence was passed by the court taking into account his/her previous conviction as an exacerbating circumstance.

Source:
The source of statistical data on crime is the administrative system of the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic. Data on justice is acquired from the statistical outputs of the Ministry of Justice of the Slovak Republic.

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Public life and decision making

The legal base for the elections to the National Council of the Slovak Republic is the Act No 333/2004 Code of Acts on Elections to the National Council of the Slovak Republic in wording of latter rules. Total 150 representatives were elected for a four-year term of office. Elections were declared by the Chairman of the National Council of the Slovak Republic by the Decree No 89/2006 of February 15, 2006. Elections were held on 17 June, 2006. Elections to the National Council of the Slovak Republic in 2010 were declared  by the Chairman of the National  Council of the Slovak Republic by his Decree  No 36/2010 of 1 February, 2010.  Elections  were  held on 12 June 2010. Elections to the National Council of the Slovak Republic in 2012 were declared by the Chairman of the National Council of the Slovak Republic by his Decree No 347/2011, elections   were held on 10 March 2012.

Elections to the European Parliament were held in the Slovak Republic on 13 June 2004, for the first time after the accession of the Slovak Republic to the European Union (May 1, 2004).  The legal  base for  the elections to the European Parliament  is the Act No 331/2003 Code of Acts on Elections to the European Parliament in wording of Act No 515/2003 Code of Acts. Elections  to the European Parliament are held on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot,  following  the principle of proportional representation. In these first elections, 14 members of the European Parliament were elected in the Slovak Republic for a five-year term of office. The second elections to the European Parliament were held in the Slovak Republic on   6 June 2009, 13 members of the European Parliament were elected. The Chairman of the National Council of the Slovak Republic announced by his Decree No. 431/2013 elections to the European Parliament 2014. Elections were held on 24 May 2014.

The legal base for elections to the bodies of self-government regions is the Act No 303/2001 Code of Acts on Elections to the Bodies of Self-government Regions and the amending of the Civil Procedure Code from July 4, 2001. Elections were declared by the Chairman of the National Council of the Slovak Republic by the Decree No 235 from June 3, 2005. Elections were held on November 26 – the first round and December 10,  2005 – the second round of election. The Chairman of  the National  Council of the SR, by his Decree No 272/2009 of July 2, 2009, announced the elections to local authorities of Self-governing Regions and the elections of Presidents of Self-governing Regions in 2009.  Elections were held on November 14, 2009 – the first round  and November 28, 2009 – the second round of elections. The Chairman of the National Council of the SR, by his Decree No 191/2013 of July 3, 2013 announced the  elections to local authorities of Self-governing Regions and the elections of Presidents of Self- governing Regions in 2013. Elections were held on November 9, 2013 – the first round and November 23, 2013 – the second round of elections.

The Chairman of the National Council of the Slovak Republic announced by his Decree No 191/2014 of 7th July 2014 elections to the bodies of communal self-government.  Elections were held on 15  November 2014.

The elections of the President of the Slovak Republic were held in 2009 by announcement of the Chairman of the National Counsil of the Slovak Republic his  Decree  No 1/2009 of January 8, 2009. The first  round was held on  21 March 2009 and the second round of election of the President of the Slovak Republic was held on 4 April 2009. The elections  of the President of the Slovak Republic were held in 2014 by announcement of the Chairman of the National Counsil of the Slovak Republic his Decree No 430/2013 of December 19, 2013. The first round was held on 15 March 2014 and the second round of election of the  President of the Slovak Republic was held on 29 March 2014.

Core ministries includes: Cabinet of Prime Minister, Ministry of Interior, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Justice.

The Rector is a statutory body of the higher education institution, managing it, acting  on its behalf and representing it. The Rector’s term of office is four years. The same person may perform the Rector’s office at the same public higher education institution for at most two consecutive terms of office.

Source: All data are the results of the processing of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic.

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