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Trnavský kraj - Characteristic of the region
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Trnavský kraj - Characteristic of the region

12.01.2022 | | Number of views: 22285

Location, area, geographical conditions

With an area of 4 146.3 km², the Trnavský kraj occupies 8.5% of Slovakia´s area. It is located in the western part of the Slovak Republic, where it forms a common border with the Czech Republic and the Republic of Austria in the north and with the Republic of Hungary in the south. It also borders with three regions Bratislavský kraj, Nitriansky kraj and Trenčiansky kraj.

From a geographical point of view, the largest area is occupied by the lowlands Podunajská nížina in the south and by Záhorská nížina in the north. They are divided by the mountain range Malé Karpaty. The highest peak of this mountain is Záruby hill (766 meter above sea level), which is also the highest place in the region. The lowest place is the water area in the cadastral district of Okoč municipality (105 m above sea level).

   The territory of the region is spread over two climatic zones - warm and moderately warm. The driest and the warmest are the southern areas of Podunajská nížina and the coldest area is the area of Malé Karpaty mountain. Average annual temperature is around 10 °C.

The water network belongs to the basin of the river Dunaj (Danube), the second largest river in Europe. Water sources are relatively rich and the sources of utility and drinking water are the streams of the rivers Danube, Váh, Malý Dunaj and Dudváh. Several water reservoirs have been built on them and their tributaries, the largest and most famous is the Gabčíkovo waterworks.

     The mineral resources of the region are represented by crude oil and natural gas in the north, by deposits of brick raw materials, limestone, dolomites, glass and foundry sands and gravel in other parts of region. A source of beech and oak wood used for fuel and various industrial purposes is found in Malé Karpaty mountain.

     There is an extensive network of protected areas in the region. There are located 4 protected landscape areas: Dunajské Luhy, Biele Karpaty, Malé Karpaty and Záhorie, 8 national nature reserves, 26 nature reserves, 28 protected areas, 23 natural monuments, 1 national natural monument – jaskyňa Driny cave and 10 special protection areas.

     According to the territorial-administrative arrangement in accordance with the Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No 221/1996 Coll. is divided into 7 districts: Dunajská Streda, Galanta, Hlohovec, Piešťany, Senica, Skalica and Trnava. The largest district is Dunajská Streda, which accounts for 25.9 % of the total area of the region, and the smallest is Hlohovec, which occupies 6.4 %.

     The region consists of 251 municipalities. The significant concentration of population is in 17 municipalities with town status. Urban population accounts for 46.8 %. Almost a quarter of urban population lives in the centre of the region – Trnava.

Demographics background

Trnavský kraj, with a population of 565 324 as at December, 31 2020, was the smallest in comparison with other Slovak regions. Its share on total population of the Slovak Republic was 10.4 %. With a population density of 136 inhabitants per km², it became the second most densely populated region. The population density was different in the individual districts of the region. The most inhabitants per 1 km² lived in Trnava district (179 inhabitants), the least in Senica district (88 inhabitants).

      In 2020, 5 352 children were born and 6 193 inhabitants died in the region. The population change has registered a decline of population for a long time. The decline deepened markedly in 2020. The net migration and the total increase in population can be assessed positively.

     The changes also continued in the age composition of the population. In 2020, the share of the children's component was by 3.1 p.p. lower than the share of the population over 65 years of age. In the last five years, the share of the child component of the population (0–14 years of age) increased by 0,6 p.p. but the growth of population older than 65 years of age was much faster, up to 2.3 p.p. In 2020 the mean age of population was 42 years and the ageing index reached 121.

     There were concluded 2 322 marriages and 994 marriages were divorced in 2020. In comparison with previous years the number of concluded and divorced marriages was significantly lower, by 23 % at marriages, by 14 % at divorces.

Economic and social specifics

Many industrial also agricultural enterprises and a wide network of services together with a good location and infrastructure offer a wide range of job opportunities. In 2020, the economically active population made up 51.1% of the population. In the last four years, the rate of economic activity has fallen to 59.8 %. The employment rate in age 20 – 64 years has been rising slightly for a long time and reached 74,9 % in 2020. The long-term declining trend of the unemployment rate was replaced in 2020 by a slight increase of 0.4 p.p. to 5%. The average nominal monthly earnings grew at EUR 1 278 and lagged behind the national average by 4.1 %.

       From view of organizational statistics at the end of 2020, there were 27 thous. legal persons, of which profit-oriented organizations created a share of 86.8 % and 35.5 thous. natural persons, of which self-employed persons accounted for 93 %. A dense network of wholesale, retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles was created in the region, in which run business 15.7 % of the total number of profit-oriented organizations and more than 16.7 % of the number of self-employed persons. Furthermore, enterprises and self-employed persons operated mainly in the sectors of professional, scientific and technical activities, industrial production and construction.

       In 2019, Trnavský kraj with the regional gross domestic product of EUR 10 841 mill. at current prices accounted for 11,5 % of national GDP. The regional GDP per capita exceeded the national average by 11.6 % and reached EUR 19 207 at current prices, which was the second-highest value in the regional comparison.

       According to economic activities, industry accounted for the highest share of 35.7 % of the regional gross value added in 2019. Public administration, defence, compulsory social security, health care and social assistance accounted for 16.2 % and trade, transport, accommodation and food service for 14.4 %.

       The Trnavský kraj is one of the most productive agricultural regions of the Slovak Republic (it follows Nitriansky kraj). Agricultural land occupies 69.3 % of the total area of the region. The share of arable land is the highest within Slovakia. The production capacity of agricultural land in the region is very good. Agricultural crops as cereals, oil plants, sugar beet and perennial fodder have the largest shares on sown areas and achieve the highest hectare yields within the regions of the Slovak Republic. Crop production is supplemented by animal production, breeding of cattle and pigs is very significant.

       The structure of the industry is represented by almost all activities. The distribution of industry is territorially unequal, the northern and central part has industrial character and the southern part an industrial-agricultural character. There is the most developed a production of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, sugar, confectionery and sparkling wines. Regional production focuses mainly on the production of computers, electronic, optical products and motor vehicles. Another important industrial branches are the manufacture of basic metals and fabricated metal products; manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.; manufacture of chemicals and chemical products; manufacture of pharmaceuticals. In 2020 industrial entities reached turnover EUR 12.4 billion.

     In terms of construction production, Trnavský kraj is one of the weaker regions. In 2020, construction organizations by own employees carried out construction production in value of EUR 409.6 mil. Contractually agreed construction production reached EUR 411.5 mill. There were 3 567 new flats built in the region, more than half of them were located in Dunajská Streda and Trnava districts.

      The transport position of Trnavský kraj and especially town Trnava as a centre of the region is significantly exposed in terms of domestic and also international transport. Road, railway and water transport are represented here. Important road routes from Bratislava through Trnava to Žilina and from Hodonín through Trnava to Nitra pass through the region. The regional road network consists of 1 965 km of roads, of which motorways and expressways make up only 3.4 %. In 2020, 392 369 of motor vehicles were registered in the region, of which 71.8 % were passenger cars.

      Railway transport is represented by important transport routes such as Bratislava – Žilina and the electrified single-track line Trnava – Galanta and Trnava – Kúty, which extends the southern railway line towards the Czech Republic. The Bratislava – Galanta – Štúrovo line is also important.  Gabčíkovo, waterworks have significantly improved sailing conditions on the Slovak section of the Danube.

      The network of school facilities is relatively well developed in the region. In 2020, pre-primary, primary, secondary and lower tertiary education was provided by 309 kindergartens, 212 primary schools, 22 grammar schools, 47 secondary vocational schools. The centre of higher education is Trnava town, which is the seat of the University of Trnava, the University of St. Kyrillius and Methodius and the Slovak Technical University – Faculty of Materials Science and Technology. There are also the University in Sládkovičovo and the University of Central Europe in Skalica in the region.

      In 2020 health care was provided in 1 306 health care facilities, which also included 7 hospitals, 989 outpatient health care facilities and 3 institutes for treatment. Geothermal and curative springs, which are used in natural curative spas in the towns Piešťany and Smrdáky, are of particular importance for the development of the region.

       The field of culture is represented in the region by 4 scenes in permanent operations Theatre in town Trnava has the most important position. Film art is promoted by an extensive network of permanent and open-air cinemas. Historical and cultural exhibition are presented in 2 galleries and 19 museums, most of them are located in the building of The Western Slovakian Museum in Trnava. In 2020, readers had 160 libraries available.

      Trnava, the centre of the region, is called the Slovak Rome due to the numerous historical sacral buildings. There are many castles and manors in the region (Ostrý Kameň, Korlátka, Dobrá Voda, Smolenice, Dolná Krupá), which are frequent destinations for trips and hiking trails. Záhorie, the west part of the region, is known for basilica in Šaštín town and the cultural and historical monuments in Skalica town. There are several water mills on Malý Dunaj river as well as thermal swimming pools in towns Dunajská Streda, Veľký Meder and Topoľníky. In 2020, the Trnavský kraj offered 307 accommodation facilities to 213 thous. of visitors.

 


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