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Population and housing census

Population and housing census

06.08.2014 | | Number of views: 15413

Methodological notes to selected indicators on the Population and Housing Census

 

Year 2011

The 2011 Population and Housing Census was conducted pursuant to the § 2 (4) Act No. 263/2008 Coll. On the Population and Housing Census in 2011 applied to:

  • Residents (physical persons who had a permanent or usual residence in the SR at the time of the census or were temporarily residing in the SR) except foreigners having diplomatic privileges and immunities; foreigners with a length of stay is less than 90 days provided data for the purposes of the Census only in a limited extent (gender, date of birth, state citizenship),
  • Any building (occupied or not occupied) intended for residential occupancy or other building that is occupied at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census, except diplomatic missions of foreign countries,
  • Apartments (occupied or not occupied) and to every other dwellings and shelters which were occupied or used for rest period at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census except diplomatic missions of foreign countries.

PERMANENT RESIDENT POPULATION

Permanent residence refers to a person´s permanent place of abode, i.e. a municipality where the citizen of the SR or a foreigner residing in the SR upon official registration, that is application for the permanent residence (Act No. 500/2004 Coll. and Act NO. 48/2002 Coll,. as amended). The permanent resident population refers to all those with permanent residence in the SR at the time of the Point in Time Relevant to the Census.

AGE

Age is a derived item constituting a resident´s years of age reached at the decisive moment of the Population and Housing Census 2011 (21st May 2011).

AGE STRUCTURE

Age structure refers to population breakdown by age into annual or multi-annual groups. Usually it refers to five-year age groups. The major population groups are broken down by relation of population to economic activity by the approximate age limits reflecting the potential start and cessation of the economic activity. We differentiate:

  • Pre-productive age (0-14)
  • Productive age (15-64)
  • Post-productive age (65+)

GENDER

Gender is a biological characteristics of every human being in the alternative male/female.

MARITAL STATUS

The marital status expresses the legal status of a resident. It says if the resident is single, married, divorced or a widow, a widower. In Population and Housing Census 2011, residents reported their marital status pursuant to current legal status in force in the SR.

THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION ACHIEVED

The highest level of education achieved entails the highest completed level of education.

  • Basic education was reported by a resident aged 16 years and over who completed a basic school and did not continue his/her study.
  • Apprentice education (without school-leaving examination) was reported by a resident who completed a secondary vocational apprentice school with apprenticeship exam (apprenticeship certificate).
  • Secondary professional education (without school-leaving examination) was reported by a resident who completed education at the secondary professional apprentice school, or secondary professional school without school-leaving examination.
  • Complete secondary apprentice/professional education (with school-leaving examination) was completed by a person who completed education at the secondary professional apprentice school by passing the school-leaving examination.
  • Complete secondary vocational/professional education (with school-leaving examination) was reported by a resident who completed education at the secondary professional schools (e.g. industrial schools, secondary vocational schools of agriculture and forestry, commercial academies etc.) by passing the school-leaving examination. It was also reported by a graduate who completed follow-up courses by passing school-leaving examination at the secondary professional schools.
  • Complete secondary general with school-leaving examination was reported by a graduate of a grammar school, general education school with school-leaving examination. It is also to be completed by graduates of 11- or 12-year secondary general-education schools, real gymnasiums, lyceums, vocational higher secondary schools for girls and secondary schools for the employed, i.e. with secondary education with school-leaving examination.
  • Higher vocational (professional) education was stated by graduates of business institutes, courses at universities and colleges, by those who attended 5th, 6th or higher grade at conservatoires as well as the graduates of the higher professional (post-secondary) study that was completed by passing the final examination.
  • Bachelor´s university education was completed by a graduate of the first degree of academic study (Bc.).
  • Magister´s (master´s), engineering, doctor´s education was registered by a graduate of the second degree of university education including rigorous examinations.
  • Academic PhD programme was completed by the graduate having attended the former research study or the current Doctor study programme.
  • No school education was completed by children under 16 years of age (born after 20.5.1995) who still attend the primary school. It was completed also by persons who have not completed the basic education.

NATIONALITY

The nationality means belonging to a certain nation, national or ethnic minority. It was stated at one´s own discretion. Mother tongue was not a crucial factor to determine the nationality and nor the language used most frequently in communication or better spoken but the person´s own discretion on the affiliation to the national or ethnic minority.

The nationality of children aged under 15 was stated according to their parents. If parents had different nationalities, the child´s nationality was completed according to the nationality of one of the parents (and on the basis of mutual agreement).

MOTHER TONGUE

The mother tongue refers to the language which was spoken by a person´s parents at his/her childhood. If the person´s parents used various languages at their childhood, only the language that was spoken by a mother was reported. Data on mother tongue need not be identical with data on nationality.

MOST FREQUENTLY USED LANGUAGE

The most frequently used language is the language that is the most frequently used by a person at work or at school, regardless of whether or not they studied in the SR or abroad. It is a language used most commonly in personal and social life. The answer reflected the one´s subjective opinion as residents reported the most frequently used language upon their own discretion. Data on most frequently used language need not be identical with data on mother tongue or nationality.

  • Most frequently used language in public means the language that is most frequently used by a person at work or at school, regardless of whether a person worked or studied in the SR or abroad.
  • Most frequently used language at homeis the language most frequently used in private.

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

The religion meant participation in the religious life of one of the churches or any relation thereto. The religion of a child aged under 15 was completed by his/her parents´ discretion.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

The economic activity refers to the economic status of a person in the labour market. Residents chose from the following options:

  • Professionals (except pensioners) - was completed by persons of 16 years of age and older who were employed or performed business activities regardless the temporary absence at work due to temporary illness or vacation and who do not receive any old-age pension benefits, pre-old age pension benefits, disability pension benefits or service benefits at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census. This includes also persons employed under an agreement on performance of work and agreement on working activities. This excludes any secondary school/full-time university students who are employed under an agreement on performance of work outside employment (temporary job). Entrepreneurs with or without employees, family workers, in custody and in execution of punishment during their employment.
  • Working pensioners - was completed by persons who receive old-age pension benefits, pre-old age pension benefits, disability pension benefits or service benefits who were employed or performed any business activities at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census. This includes also a pensioner employed under an agreement on performance of work or agreement on working activities.
  • Person on maternity leave - was completed by persons on maternity leave during their employment.
  • Person on parental leave - was completed by persons on parental leave during their employment.
  • Unemployed - was completed by persons of 16 years of age and older who are unemployed at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census and actively seek for a job regardless of whether or not they are registered as job applicants.
  • Secondary school students - was completed by full-time secondary school students (including apprentice school students). Secondary school students receiving disability pension benefits are not regarded as students.
  • University students - was completed by full-time university students. University students receiving disability pension benefits are not regarded as students.
  • Person in household - was completed by 16 years of age and older who have no personal income and is financially dependent on another household member. To be completed also by persons who were unemployed at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census and did not actively seek for a job (the voluntary unemployed”). It was completed also by non-working students of correspondence (external study) and by unemployed graduates unless they actively seek for a job and are financially dependent on another household member.
  • Pensioners - was completed by persons who receive old-age pension benefits, pre-old-age pension benefits, disability pension benefits, if they represent the only source of their income. The pensioner means also a child under 16 years of age and full-time secondary school/university students who receive disability pension benefits, if the benefits represent the only source of income.
  • Capital gain beneficiary - was completed by persons whose main source of income are e.g. revenues from leasing their own immovable property, gains from capital (interests on securities, deposits, etc.)
  • Child under 16 years of age, (born after 20.5.1995) - was completed by persons who have not reached at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census, the age of 16 years.
  • Other (economic activity) - was completed by persons who are not financially dependent on any other household member and who does not belong to any of the foregoing countries. It was completed also by person without a job who are in custody or in execution of punishment at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census, who are not in employment relationship.
  • Economically active - persons who were .professionals (except pensioners), working pensioners, unemployed and person on maternity leave, according to these methodological notes.

COMPUTER SKILLS

Computer skills referred to the respondents´ computer literacy, to their ability to use the selected computer skills in everyday life. The level of knowledge or the ability of these skills was not detected. Respondents marked “yes” or “no”, at their own discretion whether or not they could at Point in Time relevant to the Census work with text, tables, e-mail and with the Internet.

APARTMENT

An apartment is a room or a group of rooms with equipment arranged into a functional unit with its own closure intended for permanent living. During the census, dwellings referred to rooms in single-person housings, pensions, hotel-type buildings, nursing homes, etc., if providing permanent accommodation on the basis of assessment issued by municipalities / local authority or a housing authority entrusted with it and were interchangeable with another housing unit.

OCCUPANCY OF APARTMENTS

Occupancy of apartments refers to the fact whether the apartment was occupied or not. An apartment where at least one occupant lived for the most time of the year was considered occupied. An occupied apartment means also an apartment whose occupant is absent for certain temporary period. Apartments may be not occupied due to change of ownership, because they were used for recreation, vacant for alterations, not suitable for living, upon approval of a building, subject to succession or judicial procedure or due to other reasons (this included also the apartments which were not occupied due to not specified reasons in the Census Sheets).

TYPE OF OWNERSHIP OF APARTMENT

The type of ownership of apartment is determined by the legal status under which is apartment used. In the Census Sheet there were offered the following options for specifying the types of the ownership:

  • Own apartments in apartment buildings are apartments in apartment buildings owned by one or several individuals and were occupied by the owner/owners or by one/some of the co-owners.
  • Apartments in own family houses are apartments in family houses that were occupied by the owner/owners or by one or some of co-owners of the family house.
  • Municipal apartments are the apartments belonging to the municipality; so-called social apartments (apartments of lower standard that are provided by the municipality to inhabitants under certain conditions) were also classified as municipal apartments.
  • Business apartments are apartments used for accommodation of employees in public and operational buildings, medical facilities, schools and other facilities. This also involved the apartments for the personnel responsible for objects guarding or performing jobs requiring the use of business apartments (e.g. janitors, security guards, stokers, clerical staff etc.)
  • Cooperative apartments are the apartments belonging to building apartment cooperatives.
  • Leased apartments are apartments owned by individuals or legal entities in apartment buildings and family houses and which were occupied by tenants (individuals or legal persons) on the basis of a lease agreements, decision; it means that at least one tenant paid rental fees for occupancy thereof. The apartments of national apartment cooperatives were also included into lease apartments.
  • Free-of-charge apartments are apartments occupied without the obligation to pay any rental fees (e.g. occupancy of an apartment that belongs to the relatives or friends).
  • Other type of ownership of apartments covered apartments with the other types of ownership, not precisely specified in the Census Sheets.

NUMBER OF LIVING ROOMS IN THE APARTMENT

It refers to the number of rooms (living rooms) in the apartment. Living room means a room with the floor area of 8 sqm and more. The number of living rooms did not include any rooms used for business.

ENERGY SOURCES USED FOR HEATING

Energy source used for heating is an indicator representing the type of energy for heating. If more types of energy for heating were used, the prevailing source of energy was ticked. It was possible to choose from the following options: gas, electricity, solar energy, liquid fuel (diesel oil, fuel oil, spirit etc.), solid fuel (coke, coal, wood, pellets etc.), another source of energy, not precisely specified in the Census Sheet, or no source of energy.

EQUIPMENT OF THE HOUSEHOLD

Equipment of household means the data, whether the household was or was not equipped with selected durables (mobile phone, PC/laptop, car). The household was regarded as equipped with one of the above-mentioned selected durables (or with some of them) even if a business mobile phone, a business PC/laptop or a business car were used for private purposes. Neither, the number of mobile phones, PCs/laptops, private cars nor their ownership nor trade names of manufacturers were surveyed.

TYPES OF HOUSES

The type of a house expressed the sort of its determination. It specified the predominant purpose for which the house was used. Following options were given to choose from:

  • Family house is a building determined for dwelling; it may consist of maximum three separate apartments, maximum two floors above the ground and an attic.
  • Apartment building is a building determined for dwelling, which has four and more apartments which entrances are situated in the common hall or staircase. This includes also any villas that do not meet the criteria of a family house.
  • Dormitory, student´s campus
  • Church institution
  • Social services home
  • Retirement home, Boarding house
  • Accommodation facility with no apartment (e.g. a hotel, a hospital etc., with no apartment).
  • Other included other types of houses (not premarked) which were marked and subsequently completed into the Census Sheets by the owners, managers or the tenants of the apartments (e.g. a refugee camp, a school in nature).

OCCUPANCY OF THE HOUSE

Occupancy of the house expresses the fact whether the house is occupied or not.

The house is occupied, if at least one apartment therein is occupied or if it contains any facility for collective accommodation of persons with at least one occupant. Houses could be not occupied due to change of ownership, because they were used for recreation, vacant for alterations, not suitable for living, upon approval of building, the subject to succession or judicial procedure, or due to other reasons (this included also the houses which were not occupied due to not specified reasons in the Census Sheets).

TYPE OF THE OWNERSHIP OF THE HOUSE

The type of the ownership expresses the legal relationship to the ownership of the house. Houses may be owned by individuals, state, municipalities, other legal entities (e.g. business companies, non-profitable organizations, foundations, housing cooperatives), churches, foreign owners, or with various types of the ownership (combination of owners). Other type of the ownership included houses of the other types of ownership (not premarked). The owners, the managers or the tenant of the houses ticked other type of the ownership in the Census Sheets and then described it in words.

PERIOD OF CONSTRUCTION

Period of construction of the house means the period when the house was approved for occupancy, i.e. the effective date of approval of the building.

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Year 2001

PERMANENTLY RESIDENT POPULATION

There were included all persons who had permanent residence in the territory of the Slovak Republic at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census regardless of the fact whether or not they were present in their permanent place of residence. If they were not present in their permanent place of residence at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census, they were counted as resident persons, but temporarily absent ones.

Present population includes all those who were in the territory of the Slovak Republic at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census. If they were not present in their permanent place of residence, they were counted in the place of their temporary residence as temporarily present persons.

The permanent place of residence of a person surveyed is the place (district, municipality, house, dwelling), where the permanent residence of the person enumerated was registered.

AGE STRUCTURE

Age structure has been derived from data on birth (day, month and year)

Main population age groups defined by relationship to the economic activity:

  • Pre-productive age covers persons under 14
  • Productive age includes men aged 15-59 and women aged 15-54
  • Post-productive age refers to men aged 60 and over and women aged 55 and over.

Main population age groups defined by relationship to the reproductive process:

  • Pre-reproductive age represents persons under 14
  • Reproductive age includes persons aged 15-64
  • Post-reproductive age includes persons 65 years old and over.

MARITAL STATUS

Marital status was surveyed according to legal status. De facto marriages (common-law husband common-law wife) were surveyed only in regard to the relation between a dwelling occupant and a head of jointly managed and census households.

NUMBER OF LIVEBORN CHILDREN

Data on live births were collected from women regardless of their age and marital status by enrolling the number of all live born children (i.e. prior to marriage, inside and outside of marriage).The data were completed by detecting the marriage order.

CITIZENSHIP

The citizenship was surveyed according to the legal relation of the inhabitant to the state. In general, children aged under 15 acquired citizenship through their parents. If the parents´ citizenships are different, children acquire citizenship upon their mutual agreement. In the case of dual citizenship, both citizenships were listed.

NATIONALITY

The nationality means belonging to a certain national or ethnic minority. It was stated at one´s own discretion. Mother tongue was not a decisive factor determining nationality and nor the language mostly used or better spoken by the citizen, it is rather his/her decision on the affiliation to the national or ethnic minority. The nationality of children aged under 15 was indicated according to the nationality of their parents. If parents stated different nationalities, the nationality declared by one of them was indicated (upon mutual agreement of parents).

MOTHER TONGUE

The mother tongue shall mean the language which was spoken by a person´s parents at his/her childhood. If the person´s parents used various languages at their childhood, only the language that was spoken by a mother was reported. Data on mother tongue need not be identical with data on nationality.

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION

The religious affiliation meant participation in the religious life of one of the churches or any relation thereto. In case of children under 15, parents indicated religious affiliation upon their own decision.

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

The educational attainment refers to the highest level of study completed by an individual.

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

People were regarded as economically active if they had at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census labour, membership, service or other relations to a certain organization, co-operative, private person or other legal entity, employers, contributing, unemployed, self-employed persons, regardless of time spent at work. Also, persons in military service, substitute or civilian service, on military training, in custody, and in execution of punishment were counted as economically active as long as they had a labour relation, as well as persons on maternity (parental) leave, provided they were still in an employment relationship.

The unemployed persons comprise individuals aged 16 and over who were unemployed at the Point in Time Relevant to the census and were actively seeking employment and were immediately available to start work.

Persons not in labour force were all persons at the age of 16 and over whose subsistence depended on another household member and the persons not participating in the working process at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census. For example, they were persons raising children, external university students and unemployed graduates of secondary schools and universities unless they had been actively looking for a job.

All pension beneficiaries were considered to be pensioners excluding children aged under 16 and full time students or apprentices. Children aged under 16, apprentices and students who were pension beneficiaries were regarded as pensioners only if their pension was their only source of income. Employed pensioners were also included in the category of pensioners.

Dependent persons were individuals whose subsistence depended on a breadwinner (economically active or inactive member of the household with his/her own source living). Dependent persons included children aged under 16, apprentices, students of secondary schools, colleges and universities, and persons not in labour force without their source of income.

OCCUPATION

Data on occupation serve to determine a particular activity (last) performed by an individual which has been or was a source of his/her income. The denomination of the occupation was based on functional classification (technical and administrative functions) and by classification of occupations (worker professions).

Non-working pensioners, unemployed persons, persons in military service, substitute or civilian service, on military training, in custody and in execution of punishment, and persons on maternity (parental) leave indicated their last occupation.

SOCIAL GROUP

The social group was determined by employment status, type of economic activity and a type of remuneration for the work done. Non-working pensioners, unemployed persons, persons in military service, substitute or civilian service, on military training, in custody and in execution of punishment, and persons on maternity (parental) leave indicated the social group according to their last occupation.

The social group of employees covered persons working for wages, salaries, and another sort of remuneration. For these persons, the sector of national economy, in which the given persons were working, was also surveyed – in the public, cooperative or private sector or for another employer.

Persons were classified as members of production co-operatives if they had a membership relation to production, agricultural or other co-operatives. Neither the employees of these cooperative nor members of consumption co-operatives were included there.

In the social group of entrepreneurs with employees and entrepreneurs without employees were included persons registered in the Business Register, Trade Register, persons conducting business on the basis of specific regulations.

The group of assisting (unpaid) household member in family business was constituted by persons operating on a different basis then the employment relationship.

THE FIRST PERMANENT PLACE OF RESIDENCE

The first address of permanent residence refers to the first permanent place of residence of the mother at the time when the person surveyed was born.

COMMUTING TO WORK OR SCHOOL

Commuting to work or school meant commuting outside of the municipality in which the person surveyed was permanently resident. Commuting data were derived from the data on the place of residence (municipality, district) of the persons surveyed and on place (municipality, district) of the workplace or school. Processed data on commuting persons covered employed persons, working pensioners, pupils, apprentices and students who stated daily or other than daily commuting.

HOUSEHOLDS

The relations between persons living together in one dwelling served as a basis for processing census and jointly managed households.

Census household included all related or unrelated persons living together in one dwelling within one jointly managed household. It was considered to be a basic unit not to be divided further.

Census household consisted of:

  • Family households, which cores were constituted by:
    • Complete family - married couples (or common-law partners) with or without children (regardless of their age, unless the adult children constitute a separate census household);
    • Incomplete (single parent family) - one of parents with at least one child (regardless of the child´s age but taking into account joint management);
  • Other households
    • Nonfamily (group) households, consisting of two or more jointly managing persons, relatives or non-relatives, however not constituting a family household.
    • Lone-person household - only one natural person occupying the dwelling either alone or as a sub-tenant or together with another census household, but managing independently.

Subtenants constituted a separate census household.

Social group of a household was determined according to the social group of the household head; it is always the husband (de facto partner) in complete families, and, as a rule, the parent in two-generation incomplete family and the member of the middle generation in three-generation incomplete families.

Jointly managed households consist of persons living together in one dwelling and jointly covering the greater part of main household expenditure (housing, food, household maintenance, heating, electricity, gas, etc.). The amount of shared household expenditure coverage is not relevant. A jointly managed household can also consist of one or more census households.

The data on jointly managed household were processed on the basis of declarations on joint management made by persons surveyed.

Households of subtenants were always regarded as independently managed households.

Jointly managed households and census households were made up of persons permanently resident in dwellings or units other than dwellings. Households are represented by persons with temporary residence in the dwellings due to work or studying case they were the only dwelling occupants.

Dwelling household was made up of persons sharing the same dwelling.

HOUSE

The following buildings are classified as houses:

  • each separate house intended for dwelling with its own house number,
  • each separate residential or occupied building with a private entrance although without its own house number (adjacent building),
  • other buildings (dwellings) in which someone lived or stayed overnight at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census.

OCCUPANCY, TYPE OF A HOUSE

A permanently occupied house refers to a house with at least one permanently occupied dwelling or where an accommodation establishment with at least one permanently resident person is placed.

A family house is a building designed for family living with a private entrance from the public road; it may consist of maximum of three dwellings, maximum two aboveground floors, and an attic. Cottages used for recreational purposes are also included here.

An apartment building means a building determined for dwelling consisting of four and more apartments made accessible from the common premises (hall or staircase), with the common main entrance from the outside. The number of storeys is not relevant. This includes also any villas that do not meet the criteria of a family house.

An unoccupied house shall mean a house intended for living with no permanently occupied dwelling at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census.

An accommodation establishment without dwelling is a hotel, hospital, college dormitory etc. with no dwellings and with no persons registered for permanent residence.

CONSTRUCTION OR RECONSTRUCTION PERIOD

Construction or reconstruction period is the date on which the building was inspected and approved. A dwelling is a group of rooms or a single room with a bathroom and lavatory, arranged to a functional unit with a lockable door and designed for a permanent living.

OCCUPANCY OF DWELLINGS

A permanently occupied dwelling is a dwelling in which at least one person has a permanent residence or in which the occupant has a temporary residence due to work or study. Dwellings whose occupants are temporarily absent, even for a longer period of time, are also considered permanently occupied.

An unoccupied dwelling is a dwelling with no occupiers at the Point in Time Relevant to the Census. It is also a dwelling where the reason for unoccupancy is not stated.

SIZE OF DWELLINGS

Total floor area in sq. m is the total floor area of all rooms, kitchen, bathroom, lavatory, entrance-room, kitchen cabinet, and corridor excluding the area of balconies or terraces.

Habitable floor area in sq. m is the total floor area of all habitable rooms with an area of not less than 8 sq. m excluding the kitchen floor area.

Only the part of the kitchen floor area that exceeds 12 sq. m shall be regarded as a part of the habitable floor area. If the kitchen is the only room in the dwelling, its total area is included in the habitable room floor area.

Kitchen floor area in sq. m is the area of a room (kitchen) intended, due to its equipment and arrangement, for food preparation, separated from other rooms by a wall or in another way (thus not being a part of other rooms).

A habitable room is a room which can be aired directly, exposed to light,with a direct or sufficient indirect heating and, due to its arrangement and equipment, designed for year-round living. The number of habitable rooms with the floor area over 8 sq. m is indicated. If the kitchen is the only room in the dwelling, its total area is included into the habitable room floor area.

DWELLING CATEGORIES

  • 1st category – dwelling with central, remote or single-storey heating and complete basic amenities
  • 2nd category –dwellings with abovementioned heating, without their own basic amenities or dwellings with their own amenities without abovementioned heating
  • 3rd category –dwellings without abovementioned heating, with either a bathroom or a flush toilet
  • 4th category –dwellings without abovementioned heating, without basic amenities or with insufficient basic amenities

HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT BY SELECTED DURABLES

The household equipment by selected durables (refrigerator, refrigerator with freezer, separate freezer, automatic washing machine, colour TV, phone, mobile phone, car, cottage, summer house, personal computer, personal computer with internet) were surveyed regardless of their number and without taking into account to which household member the items belonged.

The ownership of company car, mobile phone, personal computer, personal computer with internet was surveyed if the household members used them for private purposes.

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