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Bratislavský kraj - Characteristic of the region
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Bratislavský kraj - Characteristic of the region

12.01.2022 |

Location, area, geographical conditions

Bratislavský kraj¸ with an area of 2 052.6 km², is the smallest within the Slovak Republic.  Its proportion of the area of Slovakia is 4.2%. It is located in the south western part of Slovakia. The region has a common border with the Republic of Austria and the Republic of Hungary. In the north, east and southeast it borders with Trnavský kraj. There is the westernmost point in the Slovak Republic on the western border with Austria, in Záhorská Ves municipality in Malacky district. The highest place in the region is Vysoká hill (759 m above sea level), the lowest water area of the gravel pit in Hrubá Borša municipality (118 m above sea level).

The territory of the region is formed in the western part by Záhorská nížina lowland, from the southwest to the northeast there is the mountain range Malé Karpaty, the eastern and south-eastern part is occupied by Podunajská nížina lowland. Climatically, the region belongs to a moderately warm area, while in the southern part contacts the warm area. The water network belongs to the river Dunaj (Danube) basin, the second largest river in the Europe, flowing through the region in the length of about 37 km, which forms part of the natural border with Austria and Hungary.

Lowlands are a source of raw materials for construction. The most extensive in terms of volume are gravel deposits in the districts Senec and Malacky. In the districts of Bratislava IV (Devínska Nová Ves), Senec and Pezinok there are reserves of brick clays. There is a source of quality wood used for fuel and various industrial purposes and also deposits of several minerals in Malé Karpaty mountain.

Within the region, there are three protected landscape areas: Malé Karpaty, Záhorie and Dunajské Luhy, 9 national nature reserves, 23 nature reserves, 22 protected sites, 7 natural monuments, 1 national natural monument, 1 protected landscape element and 5 bird protection areas.

According to the territorial-administrative arrangement in accordance with the Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No 221/1996 Coll. is divided into 8 districts: Bratislava I, Bratislava II, Bratislava III, Bratislava IV, Bratislava V, Malacky, Pezinok and Senec. The districts Bratislava I – Bratislava V form the territory of the capital of Slovakia – Bratislava. With an area of 9.6 km², Bratislava I district is the smallest district, not only within the region but within the Slovak Republic. It occupies only 0.5 % of regional area. The largest district in the region is Malacky district, which accounts for 46.3 %.

The territorial and settlement structure of Bratislavský kraj consists of 73 municipalities, one of them has the status of the capital of Slovakia (Bratislava) and 6 has the town status (Malacky, Stupava, Svätý Jur, Pezinok, Modra, Senec). Bratislava, the largest city in Slovakia, is the administrative, economic, political, educational and cultural centre of the state and the region. It consists of 17 town parts with their local government.

According to the Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No 180/2013 Coll. district authorities in Bratislava, Malacky, Pezinok and Senec are local state administration bodies. The self-governing bodies are the Office of the Bratislava Self-Governing Region and municipal, local and town offices. The City Authority of the capital of Slovak Republic – Bratislava performs the self-governing functions on the territory of Bratislava.

Demographic background

With a population of 677 024 as at December 31, 2020, Bratislavský kraj accounted for 12.4 % of the total population of Slovakia. The population density was the highest in Slovakia and amounted to 328 inhabitants per 1 km². Bratislava I district was the most densely populated. There were 4 402 inhabitants per 1 km², the most sparsely populated was Malacky district with 78 inhabitants per square kilometre. Statistics of population change was mainly affected by capital city. Approximately 65% of regional population live in Bratislava.

In 2020, 8 292 children were born in the region and 6 507 people died. A natural increase of 1 785 inhabitants was achieved. The population growth reached 7 432 persons in 2020 and was caused mainly by migration (5 647 persons). The regional mean age was 41 years and the ageing index reached 98.7 in 2020. During long time share of the pre-reproductive population has been higher than the share of the population in the post-productive age.  The both population groups have grown from year to year. On the other hand, the share of the population aged 15 – 64 has had decreasing tendency and within Slovak regions was the lowest (64.8 % in 2020).

In 2020, 3 393 marriages were concluded and 1 227 marriages divorced. The nuptiality in the region has maintained a declining trend. In 2020 the decrease of marriages was significant (by 17.2%). The number of divorces also went down markedly year-on-year (by 15.2%).

Economic and social specifics

In 2020, the economically active population of the region accounted for 52.9 % of the total population. In comparison with other regions of Slovakia, the economic activity rate (64.2 %) and the employment rate in age 20 – 64 years (79.8 %) were the highest and the unemployment rate (3.4 %) the lowest. The average nominal monthly earnings reaching EUR 1 704 was the highest in comparison with other regions. It was by 28% higher than the national average.

In Bratislavský kraj, there were 94.8 thous. legal persons, of which enterprises creates 87.4 thous. of them, and 48.2 thous. natural persons, 43.0 thous. of them were self-employed persons. In the region, exactly in Bratislava, more than half of enterprises and approximately 40 % of self-employed persons operated in the sector of professional, scientific, technical activities and in wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles as of Dec. 31, 2020.

In terms of gross domestic product (GDP) Bratislavský kraj is the most efficient region within Slovakia. The regional gross domestic product reached EUR 26 380 mill. at current prices in 2019. The volume of regional GDP represented 28.1 % of national GDP. The regional GDP per capita was equal EUR 39 704 at current prices and 2.3 times higher than the national average.

According to economic activities, the largest proportion on the regional gross value added belonged to trade, transport, accommodation and food service activities (21 %), the share of the industry was 16.5 % and public administration, defence; compulsory social security, health and social work activities 14.1 %.

The area of agricultural land is lower than half of the regional area. However, there is a significant tradition of grapes growing, especially on the eastern foothills of Malé Karpaty mountain. Bratislavský kraj is the second largest producer of grapes within Slovakia. From the livestock production, a poultry breeding has a good results and it is concentrated mainly in Pezinok district.

The most important is the chemical and automotive industry, mechanical and electrical engineering as well as food industry. In 2020, the turnover of industrial enterprises reached EUR 31.3 bill., the main part of it came from enterprises seating in the capital city. There were employed 84.6 thous. persons in the industrial sector.

A strong position of regional construction was presented by the highest volumes of the construction production. Construction production carried out by own employees amounted EUR 1 686 mill., contractually agreed construction production EUR 3 809 mill. Bratislavský kraj has been for a long time the region with the largest dwelling construction. In 2020, 5 776 new flats were completed here. The most of dwellings were built in Senec district (1 620 dwelling).

The importance of the tertiary sector is also growing in the economy of the region, especially trade, service and banking and insurance.

The traffic position of Bratislavský kraj, especially Bratislava, is significantly exposed, especially in terms of international transit. All modes of transport are presented in the region. A specific position has a water transport using a river Danube. Bratislavský kraj has the shortest road network (823 km in 2020) but has the second longest network of motorways (118 km). In 2020 there were 580 053 thous. motor vehicles registered in the region, 76.7 % of them were passenger cars.

There were 284 kindergartens, 166 basic schools, 44 grammar schools and 53 vocational secondary schools provided the education in 2020. In the academic year 2019/2020, there were eleven universities with the faculty and the rectorate in Bratislava. They are Comenius University, Slovak Technical University, University of Economics, Academy of Performing Arts, Academy of Fine Arts and Design, University of Economics and Management Public Administration, St. Elizabeth University of Health and Social Labour, Bratislava International School of Liberal Arts, Pan European University, Slovak Medical University, Academy of the Police Forces. The Faculty of Theology of the University of Trnava is located in Bratislavský kraj too. The most of students within the region were enrolled at Comenius University, the Slovak Technical University and the University of Economics.

The health care was provided in 1 876 health care facilities. They also included 22 hospitals, 1 433 outpatient health care facilities and 7 institutes for treatment in 2020. The largest University Hospital, highly specialized hospitals, specialized medical institutions, specialized and rehabilitation facilities providing medical care to patients from all over Slovakia are concentrated mainly in Bratislava.

In 2020 there were 43 scenes in permanent operations, 3 galleries, 44 museums and 147 libraries available in the region. Slovak National Theatre has an international reputation. It comprises drama, opera and ballet scenes. Musical life in Bratislavský kraj is characteristic by its genre diversity from the significant the Slovak Philharmonic through Bratislava music festival to the other music festivals, concerts and clubs. Slovak National Gallery and Slovak National Museum present most of the exhibition and expositions in the region. The castle fortifications in Devín and Bratislava, the castle Červený Kameň and also many mansions and sacral monuments are attractive for visitors. Bratislavský kraj is the third most visited region of Slovakia. An accommodation for visitors provides 366 facilities. Due to coronavirus pandemics only 500 thous. guests visited the region. It is only one third comparing the previous year.

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